What is your 密封食物?

前一段时间,《华语剪报》的读者埃夫拉姆·克兰普(Efraim Klamph)向我提出了以下问题:

我在湖南的农村地区教英语。有时候学生问我“美国人的主要食物是什么?” I assume by “main food” they mean 主食,文林将其翻译为“主食/主食”. The concept of 主食 seems very clear in Chinese cuisine; particularly at the cafeteria where I eat, you get your veggies and meat all on top of a large serving of white 白饭. When I think of American or Western cuisine in general, I have a hard time thinking of what could serve as the 主食。许多问我的学生似乎倾向于西方人以面包为食 主食。但是想想当你吃的饭’回到家至少对我来说’s not always a bunch of vegetables and tofu served on a block of 白饭. So I say to the students that Westerners don’t really have a 主食, we sometimes eat bread, 面条 and 白饭, but the concept of 主食 在西方美食上有很大的不同。我的意思是’s the 主食 在经典的沙拉,汉堡包和薯条中?有什么想法吗?

中国食品-中国大米

Photo by 北京故宫

我想当中国人想“主食,”他们通常认为“one kind of food,”而西方人通常认为这是“a class of foods,”也就是美国社会目前所说的“carbs.” So our 主食 can be pasta, or bread, or mashed 土豆es, or 白饭, or any of a number of things. Maybe even the hamburger bun and the fries. It depends on the meal.

说西餐有丰富的沙门氏菌听起来有点民族主义“主食” (carbs), whereas China has only 白饭. In reality, China does have quite a bit more variety than just 白饭.

典型的中国碳水化合物 (主食):

  • 白饭: 米饭
  • 小麦 面条: 面条
  • mantou (bun头): 馒头
  • glass 面条: 米线
  • 各种“cakes”:
  • 各种饺子: 饺子
Bread

Photo by rprata

典型的西方碳水化合物 (主食):

  • bread: 面包
  • pasta: 意大利面
  • 白饭: 米饭
  • 玉米: 玉米
  • 土豆es: 土豆

这些列表都不是详尽无遗的,但显然在那里’s variation in the carbs consumed in both regions. The difference lies in the fact that certain regions of China stick much more closely to one type (e.g. 白饭 every day in the south, 面条 every day in the north), whereas more of a variety is typical in “the west.” More than once, I’有南方的中国朋友告诉我,他们“just don’t feel right” if they don’t have at least some 白饭 every day. It’一个非常根深蒂固的饮食习惯。

显然,尝试总结孩子的饮食习惯有点荒谬。“the west” so simply, even though your Chinese friends may very well expect you to do just that. So you may have to explain that in Mexico more 玉米 tortilla and 白饭 is eaten as the 主食,在波兰’s more 土豆es, in Turkey it’各种面包等

但是如果你’早晚在中国学习汉语并与当地人交流’re going to have the 主食 讨论。大多数中国人一生都听说过,与丰富的中国菜挂毯相比,西方食物非常统一和无聊,所以您可以花些时间来捣碎 主食 这个的先入之见。 (祝好运!)

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约翰·帕斯登

约翰是上海的语言学家和企业家, 全集学习.

Comments

  1. 面包绝对是一大’s not an ‘essential’每顿饭的一部分以相同的方式‘rice’ (or 面条 depending on the region) is. In some countries bread is an 必要 part of the meal, like France I think…但是在澳大利亚。.老实说我可以’t think of an ‘essential’如果不包括在每顿饭中,那会很奇怪或使人感到饭不完整。

    土豆确实会让人联想到‘common’可以归类为澳大利亚/英国的许多菜肴中的食物… but still.. it’s not an ‘essential’ or even an ‘expected’ food to in clude.

    时光倒流了50或60年,而我’d say that every meal in Australia would have in cluded beef, 土豆es and peas. Now.. is that because of a cultural ‘requirement’? Not at all.. it’仅仅是由于这些东西的丰富。

    所以我想知道‘rice’因此,作为一种丰富的资源是必不可少的,而且由于中国是一种真正的古老文化,它已成为千年文化。

    • 我另一件事’d还要补充一点,就是澳大利亚是一个多元文化的社会。.没有这样的国家食品。.我们吃任何可用的食物,喜欢吃的东西等等。这与50年前非移民移民之前有所不同英国人民爆炸了。但是我认为这很好地体现了这一论点。我的太太’她的家人在很大程度上接受了我,但例如,她的一位阿姨不明白为什么我要嫁给一个非澳大利亚人。我试图解释说,在澳大利亚,默认情况下,我们有混合种族,而中国人就是其中之一。.’t understood. There’是中国人和居住在海外的中国人之间的区别。我也认为“staple food” and “daily food” in this same way… It’是一种传统/文化的东西,除非您属于该特定文化的一部分,否则您将无法与之相比。

  2. 主食对话…

    在天津(北)的学校’ve been to also serve stir fried vegetables a top a heap of white 白饭, not 面条.

    是的,面条店在天津很普遍,但是,不仅仅是说“北部每天/每餐都吃面条”至少在天津,它可能更好地表示为“北部每顿饭都吃小麦”.

    Basically it seems a lot of 小麦 related foods are eaten in Tianjin, i.e. buns, flat breads, 面条. Predominately all are white flour based, no sign of whole 小麦 at the moment.

    Breakfast in Tianjin: 煎饼果子 is by far the most 共同.
    Lunch in Tianjin: 米饭/面条 you find the 面条 coming more in to play around lunch time, especially as it relates to street vendors or little restaurants, yet at the schools and with other box lunch type offerings, you will find white 白饭 being served en mass.

    天津的晚餐:嗯,就我个人而言,这顿饭对各种食品都是开放的,但仍然没有标准“noodles” at every meal.

    Oh yeah! Another big 小麦 based product eaten often in Tianjin is dumplings a.k.a. 饺子/水饺。

    概要,“wheat in the north”.

    Suggestion/hope, more whole grains! Whole 小麦 and brown 白饭 would be a great and healthy change!

  3. 至少在美国,过去50年来,可供使用和广泛享用的食物种类激增。例如,生鱼已从最终的奇异食品变成了在加油站出售的产品。

    在心理学方面,我们仍然说“人不单靠面包生活”, “给我们这一天我们日用的饮食。”比较一下中文版饭的用法,一般是指食物。

  4. I’ve注意到滥用该词‘staple food’ before. We 只是不要’t use the word that way. You could say that the 密封食物 of parts of Italy is 白饭, or in Ireland it used to be 土豆es, but you would not say ‘My 密封食物 is…’, not even if you always ate 白饭 or bread with your meals. It seems to have crept in to books teaching Chinese to English speakers or English to Chinese speakers.
    当老师坚持我们叫红茶时,我上了足够的在线课‘yellow tea’用英语讲。 Liptons Yellow Label品牌证明了这一点。他不愿意就这一点进行讨论。

  5. My 密封食物 through college was oats. My roommate’s was 土豆es, and our other roommate’s是拉面。第四个…好吧,他可能是Taco Bell。

  6. Like light says, back a generation or two in the US, eating was much less diverse, and I think you could argue that bread (of 各种kinds) was the 密封食物 in the midwest, with 土豆es probably coming in a close second. I don’认为我的祖父母小时候曾经吃过面条或米饭,而据我所记得的曾祖母,到访时,我们至少每天都会吃土豆。我奶奶几乎每顿饭都还提供某种面包,而我’我很确定我小时候几乎每天都在吃面包–and if I didn’为健康起见,我认为我需要更多种类的食物,甚至可能需要更少的碳水化合物,所以我可以在每顿饭中愉快地吃掉它。而在中国生活了一年之后,我从喜欢米饭变成了以为只要我住了就再也不想见到它了…

  7. 美国确实确实有很多“staple food”. I’ve never really thought in to how some cultures it makes sense to have a 密封食物 as opposed to consistently switching up your meals.

  8. 我同意nommoc。‘主食’中文中的“农作物”是指收割的农作物,而不是用农作物制成的粮食。所以应该是‘rice’, ‘wheat’, ‘potato’, ‘corn’ or ‘taro’等等。面食,煎饼,面条只是各种食品,都是由‘wheat’, and mashed 土豆es and French fries are all from ‘wheat’. So you could say that in southern China, 白饭 is the ‘主食’,在北部’s ‘wheat’。在西方(欧美)’s mainly ‘wheat’ and ‘potato’,在墨西哥,‘corn’.

  9. 其实当我第一次看到“主食” I thought it meant “main course”. For example, if you were eating at an italian restaurant, the salad or soup would come first, the pasta dish comes next as your 主菜, and then you get dessert. If you are at a steak restaurant, the steak would be your 主菜.

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