在自然语言中争取更好的语气

在ACTFL 2008上,以下演讲之一 TCFL 我发现最有趣的是一个叫“讲普通话的另一种方法” 通过 廖荣荣博士国防语言学院.

的problem, as Dr. Liao presented it, is that many learners can reach a relatively high level of fluency 在 Mandarin Chinese, have excellent tonal accuracy for 在 dividual words, yet still make a large number of very unnatural tonal errors 在 natural speech. This is a common enough problem that educators 真 need to be looking for ways to address it.

的message 的 presentation was, 在 essence:

  1. We’re giving students of Chinese the wrong picture of 音s (third 音 在 particular)
  2. 声音在自然语音中的重要性并不相同
  3. Funny-sounding speech can be corrected most efficiently 通过 focusing on certain key 音s

现在我’将这些不同的观点一一分解。

We’re giving students the wrong picture of 音s

的way students first learn 音s is 在 isolation. 您 apply 音s to 在 dividual syllables. 的idealized 音 contours of those 音s 在 isolation look like the chart below.

普通话的语气轮廓

的thing is, 在 natural connected speech, 音s don’表现得很像是的,那里’s 音 sandhi (tones 在 sequence affect each other 在 regular ways), but it’s more than just that. Third 音 在 particular has a habit of 浸渍 but then not rising the way it 应该。 (这种现象被称为“half-third 音.”) So then is the not rising 在 natural speech the exception, or is the perfect rise 在 an isolated 音 the 真实 例外?

廖医生建议’s more useful to teach that the third 音 is 而不是 浸渍. This could help with third 音 problems 在 connected speech. 的“model” third 音 with a rising tail could then be treated as the exception to the rule.

的symmetry-loving perfectionist 在 me actually likes this a lot. This way you end up with two pairs of almost diametrically opposed 音s (yes, we’re fudging a bit): high vs. 低 (1 vs. 3), and rising vs. falling (2 vs. 4). Dr. Liao also notes here that learners tend to confuse 音 1 and 4 with each other much more than with the other two, and 音 2 and 3 much more than with the other two. Very 在 teresting.

This 真 struck a chord with me, as it matches nicely with my own observations. Taking all this 在 to account and putting the actual 音 contours aside for a moment, I put together my own experimental “idealized perceptual 音 diagram”:

感知玛雅吧轮廓 在  Mandarin Chinese

我不知道这样的表述对所有学生是否真的有用。但是,在对这种概念感到迷恋之前,让我们’移至下一点…

语音在关联语音中的重要性并不相同

当廖医生开始谈论这个问题时,我立即回想起我的朋友阿尔夫在中国学习汉语大约半年后说的话:

口气真是胡扯。当中国人说得很快时,他们不会’不能真正使用它们。所以我’我只会无视他们,像中国人一样快速交谈,而我’ll be fine.

啊,“tones aren’t important”谬论。在大多数中国学生的漫长学习中,他们不止一次听到这样的cri讽,’m sure. 的thing is, like any good lie, there’实际上是一些事实。

Dr. Liao pointed out that 在 natural speech, some 音s 在 a “frame” are “weakened” or “reduced”失去很多“idealized” properties. That is to say, if you look at their 音 contours (remember 如何用Praat做到这一点?)在句子中,他们没有’都与我们众所周知的经典图表中的完美角度相似。

这里’s an 例 of what 本机 speaker 音 contours look like 在 speech [资源]:

关联语音中的玛雅吧

您’ll notice that the 音s of some words are clearly recognizable, while others are less so. What’继续吗?好吧,在自然汉语句子中,每个短语中的某些单词都是 强调. Stressed words will have a 音 contour which most closely follows the 理想化 form, whereas the other 音s are shortened, kind of run together, and generally goof off.

Funny-sounding speech can be corrected most efficiently 通过 focusing on certain key 音s

这里’s where 阿尔夫’s idea comes 在 to play. Dr. Liao recommends that 在 stead of correcting every mispronounced 音 在 a sentence (and there might be many), 在 structors 应该 focus on the 强调词;重读词. When the 音(s) 在 a 强调 word is mispronounced, the sentence will frequently sound quite bad to 本机 ears, but when the 强调 word is pronounced correctly, the other 音s will often fall 在 line.

This is a cool idea, because if it works, it means (1) teachers can stop worrying about so many wrong 音s, and (2) students can quit freaking about every 音.

听起来不错。它’s complex enough!

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约翰·帕斯登

约翰是上海的语言学家和企业家, 全集学习.

评论

  1. 听起来真的 有趣。是否有机会为进一步研究提供一些指示?如果可以的话,您可以上传随附的演示文稿或论文吗?谢谢!

  2. DenisSuslov 说: 2008年12月11日,上午1:12

    非常有趣,谢谢!
    Any 例 of a sentence with 强调 and non-stressed words?

  3. 我非常喜欢那个…。但是一般说什么规则’ 音s are 强调 在 a sentence??

  4. In my view, there is no symmetry between 2 and 4 except on paper. My grouping is as follows: there are three week 音s: 1 is high; 3 is 低; 2 is rising; and there is one strong 音 (like syllabic emphasis 在 English): 4. Note also that the neutral 音 is actually very important, and it’s one 的 week 音s. 4 is truly 在 a class 通过 itself.

    的totally agree that the easiest 音s to get confused are 1 and 4, and 2 and 3:

    1和4开始时大致相同(高),但强调4而没有强调1。通过强调4,它下降了。虚弱,乏味的4与虚弱,草率的1大致相同。

    2和3的起点大致相同(低),但2的上升而3的起点大不相同。 2和3是最难区分的,因为一个相对于另一个并没有明确强调。

    您 can always tell when a 本机 speaker is reciting or quoting poetry: suddenly their 音s become very musical, which is contrary to normal speech. Normal Chinese speech relies on 在 tonation (not so much pitch, but 在 tonation), whereas poetry is more musical. IMHO.

  5. […] 在自然语言中寻求更好的玛雅吧|中国剪接: Life A very 在 teresting discussion of Mandarin 音s 通过 约翰·帕斯登 (based on a talk 通过 Rongrong Liao). Of course, you need to know which characters are 强调, which 我不’t always know… […]

  6. That makes sense, when I pronounce something well it is usually because I have stitched together some long phrases that I have heard Chinese people speak and mimic the sound they made. My worse pronunciation is when I construct a new sentence entirely from 在 dividual words I know (I know the 音s 的 words but often have trouble running them together).

    的third 音 doesn’t quite sit 在 the 低 flat 低 area for me though because the 低 flat 音 在 Cantonese sounds so very distinctive if you are used to hearing Mandarin.

    To make a comparison for an English speaker French is slurred 在 fast natural speech, yet German pronunciation is still clear even when spoken fast (generally agreed upon). To put things 在 perspective with Mandarin it 应该 be possible to compare with other tonal 语言s. There may be a tonal 语言 that tends to be a stickler for correct 音 as opposed to one that 真 fudges it, where do Thai and Vietnamese fit 在 comparison for 例?. Comparing tonal 语言s 在 this way gives the learner (and teachers) some perspective on how important the 在 dividual 音s are.

  7. 这三点对我来说也很有意义。
    I’在过去的8个月里,我一直在中国学习汉语,而这些要点就像拼图一样。
    I find especially true the second point, living 在 Chongqing I frequently hear people pronouncing the first word overemphasised, and following it with a cascade of short and 音less bursts.

    I’d be ready to bet that teaching perceptual 音s contours and the importance of 强调词;重读词 would improve the learning process and reduce frustration on the whole.

    谢谢你的这篇文章’s 极品.

  8. Great post! I learned the 音s are not exactly what they seem as a Chinese speaking missionary. One of my companions (who didn’t have the best Chinese) taught me that the length of 音s change.

    One thing is true that some people just sound bad when they speak 音less Chinese.

  9. Interesting, I was having problems with 2nd and 3rd 音 years ago, and after some 在 tense listening and trial and error 在 class, I discovered that 在 the context of a sentence, 本机 speakers would usually tell me i was correct if i pronounced the third 音 as though it were essentially just a 低 first 音. I still tend to dip a bit so I guess there’有所不同,但是’很有趣的发现,一个实际上对语言学有所了解的人(医生!)已经证实了我几年前自己做的随机事情,仅供我自己使用。很高兴知道我的天堂’这些年来一直是错的。

    I’d也想知道什么(如果有的话)决定句子中强调的单词…根据我的经验,它似乎主要是名词(即需要清楚地理解对象才能理解句子的整体含义),有时还包括连词…

  10. I think the 感知玛雅吧轮廓 diagram is genius, and would be especially helpful for beginners. For me, the 2nd 音 was the hardest to learn because I was learning from the chart that says the 2nd 音 starts somewhere between the 1st and 3rd 音s–I found this very confusing. However, the 感知玛雅吧轮廓 diagram not only simplifies the 3rd 音, it also gives a clearer starting point for the 2nd 音. That is, start with the 3rd 音 and work your way up. I’我不是语言专家,但过去四年来我一直在学习普通话,’m willing to bet that this diagram would help beginners of Mandarin learn 音s quicker and easier. At the very least, it would have saved me a few hundred hours of trying to figure out the 2nd 音.

  11. 马克斯

    我不’t have the paper; I’我依靠我自己的笔记(所以我希望我能准确地表达她的观点!)。我确实希望自己能与廖医生联系,也许可以链接到本文或从她那里得到一些个人评论,但是我可以’似乎找不到她的电子邮件地址。 ACTFL的许多主持人都提供了他们的电子邮件地址,但她没有,我没有’t get it from her.

    如果有人有她的电子邮件地址,我’d如果您可以通过电子邮件将其发送给我,我们将不胜感激。谢谢!

  12. 丹尼斯和科林,

    压力真的很棘手,而且’不是我的专业领域。一世’如果我发现任何有用的信息,将通知您。

  13. Interesting enough for academic purposes. However, how do you deal w/the learning locations and their 在 fluence: such as 音s 在 Taipei vs 音s 在 Beijing? At that point, whose to say what the correct 音 is? I will say that although there are differences here 在 Taiwan vs China, my family and teacher readily point them out when speaking to me.

  14. 我认为这是很多人在沉浸式环境中花费大量时间后内部化的东西,但是’很高兴看到有人也在谈论将其合并到课堂计划中。
    I’多年来一直在告诉人们 应该 worry about the 音s to some extent, they 应该n’不必担心,因为他们’ll just have to teach themselves the 音s all over again 在 a few years anyway. Would be nice to see a program that cut out the 在 termediary step.

  15. 林仔

    I’d说只有考虑到特定目的地的初学者才需要担心,并且可以自然地将其解决’的学习进度。我认为,学习者一定会遇到各种各样的口音。

  16. 布伦丹

    究竟!所以问题是人们实际上可以内部化什么,需要明确地教什么,以及 在什么阶段 以获得更高效的获取。

    有些学习者比其他学习者更好地接受(内在化),但是现在我认为那些不’主要只是停留在尘土中。

  17. 实际上,这还有一个有趣的结果:
    它使发音的确定性降低–从而减少了机器的可加工性。

    我仍然记得测试过中文语音识别/发音训练软件。当我的中国同事很自然地阅读给定的文字时,他可能犯了很多错误。.只有当他用一个音节用机器人自动读出一个音节后,程序才满意。

    鉴于以上发现,实现语音发音训练软件变得更加复杂。而且它还需要额外的信息以强调它永远无法自己演绎,因为软件无法掌握语义和上下文。这也意味着您无法将其与任意的,未经准备的文本一起输入。

  18. […]单击此处阅读文章:在自然语音中实现更好的玛雅吧[…]

  19. 的“idealized perceptual 音 diagram”看起来不错。我喜欢颜色编码。不过是新的吗?自从我开始中文学习之初,就已经有好几年了。不幸的是我没有’t remember where it came from. Either it was taught me at some point, or your diagram is an eerily accurate version of my perception of 音s. (It would be even more so if you stretched the oval shape for 1 and scrunched the oval shape for 3, to represent their respective bell-like and creaky natures.)

    至于什么时候廖医生’s points 2 and 3 应该 be 在 troduced, perhaps at the 在 termediate level? From my experience as a student, rank beginners ought to be strictly forced to produce 音s for every syllable, since it’s way too tempting for them to pronounce all 音s weakly. (Tones at first seem so embarrassing and overwrought…。)初学者可以 ’t say that many words 在 a row anyway. And they do need to learn the right 音 contours. But I remember crossing a threshhold, around my second semester of college Chinese, to where 音s actually started to make sense; that is, when I stopped having to pretend I was asking a question 在 order to say 2, pretend I was being emphatic when I said 4, etc. When students have reached that point, it would be safe to switch to the approach of focusing on 强调 音s.

    在教授英语发音时,使用令人恐惧的元音排列,您不仅需要使学生清楚地用一个句子清晰地读出重读的元音,还必须使他们减弱未重读的元音。有道理,一种类似的方法可以适用于中文。

    Finally, one random note: my teachers definitely taught the shortened third 音 right from the beginning. Is that not then standard practice?

  20. Glenderful 说: 2008年12月11日,晚上9:37

    这里’s my issue: why can I never, ever get the 4th 音, right? No matter how much I prepare for it, it just doesn’为我工作!还有其他人有这种情况吗?那里’几次我觉得自己像’m yelling and trying to sound 真 angry to get the 4th 音, but I know it’不对。有什么建议?!?!

  21. 是的,我倾向于同意Alf,但有一个附加组件。自从回到瑞士时代以来,我一直发现尝试尽可能准确地模仿所学语言的发音不仅包括发音,还包括重音,节奏和语调,变形和情感。快速说话一直是我的问题 –我的母语讲得太快了,以至于其他母语人士有时也听不懂。因此,通过在瑞士德语中执行此操作,我会说得这么快,以至于我的失误听起来都好像我在讲几种不同的区域辩证法影响–这个反应让我惊讶的是,我是一个如此出行的瑞士人(我是澳大利亚人)。所以同样的提法对我有用–我的发音相当准确,说得这么快,以至于当我犯了发音错误时,他们就不那么容易被抓住,而且还用Ānhuī(Língbì)tǔhuá中的奇数字和一些苏州人甚至偶而台湾人郝浩慈Eh说话!扔进他们只是以为我’在炸弹中(直到他们经过几分钟的交谈才意识到我的实际发音能力需要改进)。

    And thus talking fast + the occasional phrase 在 dialect will also help cover up those 音 errors.

    NOTE: At U.Q we were actually taught to make 3rd 音 marks as an underscore underneath the vowels 在 the 3rd 音 word.

  22. 我相信我最好的朋友和前室友是廖博士在蒙特雷教的。多么小的世界!

    I’ve always been of two minds about 音s. On one hand, I want to break them down to the point at which I could use mathematical functions to describe them, regardless of how complex those functions would have to be. 在other hand, when it comes to actually improving my speech, mimicry has always served me best.

    通过模仿,我的意思是实际上是在尝试传达我从电视上的角色听到的台词,就像我是一名方法演员一样。给好朋友留下印象似乎也有很大帮助。我想这个特殊的方法是’不会对每种人格类型开放,但是’比实际记住所有规则要简单得多。

  23. geoffrey cook 说: 2008年12月12日,上午4:37
  24. 约翰, this is a very useful post. I just forwarded it on to one of my old Chinese professor from college for her to use as a teaching aid. I know characters can be difficult to learn, but I think one 的 hardest things for a foreigner to accomplish is perfect Chinese 音s. I have found that most 的 time poor pronunciation is a result of bad habits developed early on 在 their Chinese studies. If more Chinese 在 structors were aware of what you mentioned 在 this post, then it could help them prevent their students from developing these bad habits 在 the first place. Thanks for this.

  25. 阅读评论后,似乎讲外语的技巧是如此复杂,以至于最好将其简化为生物反馈式方法(在这种方法中,您将学会聆听正确的声音,然后不断进行调整,直到听起来相同为止,而大部分时间都忽略了技术分析或复杂的解释)。

    I taught myself Tuvan harmonic throat singing that way (you adjust the muscles 在 your mouth, throat and tongue so that the cavity formed is exactly correct to pick out various harmonics of a constant hummed note). 的actual procedure is impossible to explain 充分y, the best way to learn is to listen, start with a few basic pointers and then keep going at it . 您 never know the exact combinations that work, but your body remembers for you as you 在 creasingly get it right.

    我知道生物反馈通常用于医学场合,很多年前,我学会了在几下节拍的间隔下将心率从80降低到40,尽管这样做与学习Tuvan喉咙唱歌和许多方面类似语言学习。

  26. I’m 在 terested 在 the color coding used. I had heard it suggested that color-coding characters based on 音 was a good way to help learn them (you’d在黄色抽认卡上放置第一色调字符,在蓝色上放置第二色调等)。一世’m thinking of trying out something similar 在 Skritter, where after you practiced a 音, the character would perhaps flash with the 音’s color.

    是否有通常使用的标准颜色,或者我可以随意选择它们吗?

    (顺便说一句,我’我也对传统与简化的色彩关联感兴趣,但我对此表示怀疑’s much there.)

    我才抓到廖医生的尽头’s talk; did she suggest that the unstressed 音s could goof off however they wanted, or that they would still have some restrictions, but ones that made sense, given the context, to a 本机 speaker? I’我很好奇学生是否可以为没有重读音节的东西补上东西,而听起来却没有像自然的东西一样有效。

  27. 这对我完全有意义,而我’在与中间王国的公民交谈时,我一直在考虑使用这种方法,发现他们似乎对我的理解更好一些。还有我的感觉’m more sense to myself, as far as 音s are concerned.

    As to how 音s ACTUALLY sound. I’ve found this; when two 4th are together. Make the first one sound like a first 音, and the second a strong 4th 音 and the Chinese will completely get it!

  28. oh, this is one 的 best posts 在 a long time, 约翰. As every Chinese learner i have been so frustrated 通过 the 音s and this 感觉ing doesn’t seem to go away completely, even after three years 在 the country. For a long time i have been trying to find a way to make myself use and recognize the 音s correctly. I thought it was me, but this 文章 finally agrees with what i have been thinking for a long time. 的音s are no way absolute. They depend on the word itself, the place 在 the sentence, emphasize, combination with other 音s, etc..

    有声调的是,中国人最有能力进行解释,但就像任何以母语为母语的人一样,要解释一种明显的关于自己的语言的东西比讲另一种语言要困难得多。另一方面,不是中国学习者有很多理论和方法,但是没有办法知道他们对玛雅吧的理解是否准确。除非您有内置‘praat’在你的脑海。反正对我来说,我真的不’t hear a lot of ‘tone’ differences (in a do re mi kind of way), I suck at this 在 music as well. But I do hear a difference 在 the way words with different 音s are pronounced. I just can’t define it. So many times I have cursed my friends when they correct a word I said, while I was convinced I said the correct 音. After they correct me , it still often takes 4 or 5 tries before I get it right. This 应该n’t happen because after three years I can pronounce single words with whatever 音, or so i’d like to think.

    另一方面,句子则完全不同…就在一周前,我的老师正在解释他刚刚说过的一句话的语调。学生应该以较高的玛雅吧说出这个或那个部分,而最后一个部分则以高音开始并以低音结束。现在,这两个部分大部分都是第一和中性玛雅吧,那么如何在按照玛雅吧表产生第一声调的同时继续从高音到低音?即使您可以控制自己的声音,使第一个玛雅吧高于第二个玛雅吧,从而平均玛雅吧下降,您也不会’遵循色调表。我没有’甚至没有第二声调考虑过这一点。我想更进一步,因为如果我不这样做’就像我用自己的语言那样,不要停止语调和强调我的句子,我将再也听不到自然的声音。很难找到有关此信息以及它如何影响玛雅吧的信息。了解更多信息可能会有所帮助,因为它可以解释为什么我们很难识别某种语气,如果原因可能是语调或压力。就像迈克尔·麦克斯(Michael Max)所说的那样,如果您有两个第四声调紧挨着,第二声调通常会受到压力,并且由于许多外国人似乎将第四声调与压力联系在一起,就像这里的一些评论者一样,第一声调不会’听起来像是我们耳朵上真正的第四声调。正如我的一个朋友所发出的第四声一样,他的声音似乎总是很慢很长,这实际上使我很难识别它。

    关于 the perceptual 音 contour diagram. In my subjective perception the fourth 音 would be drawn shorter with most of it’s length on a very high level. Or at least I would draw the beginning 的 arrow thicker and the end very thin. For me the only 音 that 真 changes a lot 在 pitch is the second one. And the third one 在 certain circumstances, but usually not 在 combination with other 音s 在 one word.

    Although this 文章 is very 在 teresting, I doubt if we will ever find an optimum way to explain students about 音s and to teach ourselves. Diagrams and whatever ways to visualize the 音s are great and all, but 应该n’我们认为āá和à是不同的元音,而不是从‘a’ sound of or own 语言, making it sound chinese and adding a 音 to it? This doesn’不能解决发出实际声音的问题,但在我看来,这会消除很多关于汉语发音的困惑,尤其是对于初学者而言。“It’s the same word, but with a different 音.” is a statement that is just false. If it has a different 音 it is not the same word. ‘Car’也跟这个词不一样‘bar’,辅音的发音不同。‘Hit’ is not the same as ‘heat’(尽管它是同一声音的变体),依此类推…

    Well, whatever we say about it and what is true or at least helpful and what is not, at least now i can relax some with the thought that 音s are relative and not 的 utmost importance for every syllable.

    现在,我将尝试使用Praat。 --

    打招呼

  29. 缺口,

    I have no idea if there are any color-coding conventions. In the absence of any better reasons, I chose warm colors for 音s that start high (higher pitch, higher temperature), and cool colors for the ones that start 低 (lower pitch, 低er temperature). To me, 音 1 and 4 also 感觉 更高的能量,也适合暖色。

    我不’t think that Dr. Liao suggested that the unstressed 音s could goof off however they wanted, but the exact principles 通过 which they were “weakened” or “reduced”不在她的讨论范围之内。

  30. 请查阅2002年出版的《北京语大学汉语语音教程》。

    i get so annoyed when students have only learned 强调 音 3.

  31. […] 中国剪接on a better way to teach 音s 在 Mandarin. […]

  32. 很棒的帖子。不确定我得到的第三个音只是低音,因为第一个是高稳定音。必须要有一个倾角(根据我的谦卑的耳朵),尽管在很多时候都被截断了。尝试说美国将第三声模仿为低稳定声… it won’听起来不错。我将语气更多地看作是框架,而不是福音,其余的只是听母语人士的意见,并按照他们的意愿行事。当然,这会因地区而异,因人而异,但是如果您听起来像中国或台湾的任何人,您已经取得了巨大的成功。而且,和我一样’我确定你知道’唯一的一种由于语言而难以准确说出的语言。尝试解释法语“r” or Spanish “rr” to learners. Let’s take the Spanish “rr”,对美国人来说是很难的。“Just roll your r’s”,西班牙语老师会解释。这是没有解释的内容:有时您的侧重点要更长一些,而其他时候会被缩短。因此,发生的情况是非母语的人听起来太有趣,滚动得太短,停止得太短。唯一要做的就是振作精神,并顺其自然。有几篇文章说明了这一点。在绝对消灭声音方面,法语也许可以比作中国。我听说美国人在这两种语言中都达到了很高的水平,并且在发音/语调和语调方面远远达不到要求。另一方面,我也看到罕见的初学者更接近钉牢它。对于任何学习具有挑战性声音的语言的人,我的建议是沉迷于播客(chinesepod.com,learnfrenchbypodcast.com等)。并且不要听光滑,生动的中文,例如综合中文的音频;它应该是自然的发音语言。我曾经做过的另一件事是,请一位私人老师,并首先从简单的文本(初学者教科书)中朗读,让老师在每次您听起来有些好笑时阻止您,突出显示这些单词/段落并继续尝试复制老师,直到你弄对了。

  33. 让语言学家教授语言的更多陷阱。总是以对语言学家有意义的方式来解释事物,但对其他所有人却感到莫名其妙或毫无意义。

  34. light487 说: 2008年12月16日下午6:18

    我通常会在工作方式上准备好您的博客,所以我错过了这张和所有图片。我完全可以将整个概念与音乐理论的学习范围联系起来。

    To summarise: it all depends on where you start. Looking at the speech pattern diagram this is extremely obvious. If you are starting on a high 1st 音, then the next syllable is going to start up there and end 在 a shallower position, relative to the starting position. Whereas, if you start on a third 音 then you are going to be starting the next 音, regardless of what it is, at a much 低er relative pitch. Even 在 the case where you use another 1st 音, it’s definitely going to be higher than the highest point 的 3rd 音 that went before it, although not that far up 在 pitch.

    如您所说,如果您将每个音节分别与下一个音节分开,那么您将得到一组完美的音节“example”单词,但句子不流畅。这非常类似于音乐在乐句之间流动的方式。

  35. 正如其他人在这里以各种方式表达的那样,我也认为对第二语言习得的这种讨论描述了学习的两个不同方面–当我们有意识地尝试学习某物时发生的有意识和有意的学习类型,以及随着时间的推移发生的潜意识(内在化)学习,并且在使用该语言的真实(非学术)情况下具有足够的曝光和交互作用。

    Memorizing 音 patterns 在 new vocabulary is tedious, but perhaps is still a necessity at a certain stages of learning Chinese.

    但很早(在学习任何语言时),我认为这是一个好习惯(假设一个人是说母语的老师),开始学习整个短语,句子,甚至是对话,全心全意地学习,而不必过多地分析语法。例如,学生足以知道该短语的含义“Are you single?” or “请再给我们带来两个啤酒”等等。这样,您就会吞并并反省整个想法,并希望他们受到指导以减轻压力和‘meoldy’尽可能接近,基本上模仿您的老师。

    这与“tones don’快速的演讲如此重要”理念。初学者可以学习一些词汇单词,并可以尝试将一个句子串在一起,但是如果没有’变得非常接近当地人期望以正常言语表达的想法,然后它赢得了’t be understood –no matter how accurate the learner may be with the 音s on the 在 dividual words.

    But if the (Chinese) listener hears a whole sentence (in gramatically-colloquial usage), then it will be understood pretty much regardless of 音-mistakes. That’s because the sentence will be understood as a sinlge, 在 tact IDEA. 的individual syllables that make up that idea are understood IN CONTEXT, as parts of an larger pattern, 而不是 having to to be guessed at one 通过 one….with 在 accurate 音s to confuse the listener.

  36. […] On the Jump to 评论 Hard-core students of Mandarin Chinese will be 在 terested 在 this 文章 on the subject of teaching and learning the pronunciation 的 four standard 音s of Mandarin, posted on the excellent Chinese learning site 中国剪接. […]

  37. I’ve often noticed that if there are a heap of 3rd 音s together it 真 ruins the flow 的 sentence.. I can’t think 的 last sentence I saw like this, other than it had 4 3rd 音 syllables all together at the start 的 sentence. I found this hard to pronounce 在 a fluid way.

    我发现,当一个大块或整个句子以流畅的方式轻松流动时,它使记起来非常容易。像这样的短语“what is your name?” “你叫我名子吗?”,该句子的流动性非常好,不仅易于记忆,而且使初学者可以毫不犹豫地领会整个句子的发音。

    回到音乐理论和语言学习的相似之处,可以说这就像学习音阶。许多音乐初学者讨厌自己的音乐规模。但是,这样做意味着当他们以后在音乐中使用它们时,他们将毫不费力地这样做。

    When you learn the pronunciation of 音s, 在 itials and finals 在 mandarin, it provides the same foundation that scales do 在 music theory. Grammar 在 advertantly arises early on as well but one without the other is useless.

    In English I would know thousands of words 通过 now but ask me to name them all and I cant . And even the ones 我不’知道由于扎实的基础可以轻松解决。

  38. […]在自然语音中获得更好的玛雅吧– Dr. Liao (of the 国防语言学院) suggests re-conceptualizing 音s 在 Mandarin to take 在 to account natural speech patterns and 音s 在 sentences. […]

  39. I have been using this system for a long time now, because I noticed the important words or words that easily can be misunderstood were being 强调 and a lot 的 other speech was fast and not distinctive when a 本机 speaker spoke. Like the word Shui(3) I would usually heard 强调 with the third 音. Very 在 teresting post 约翰.

  40. 是否有可能得到需要强调的容易被误解的单词列表?看到这个会很有趣“stressed words”方法直接纳入学习课程。不仅在侧边栏或介绍性段落中进行了讨论,而且实际上已纳入整体学习结构中。

  41. This gives me a bit more confidence 在 speaking if i think of 音s as such.

  42. Glad to see this being noticed 在 the 真实 world. We did some phonetic experiments a few years ago that showed this kind of stuff. It seems that (on average) alternating syllables are stronger and weaker. 的first syllable is generally strong and you do the 音 correctly, then the second is weak and 在 stead of doing the 音, you use that syllable to get ready for the 音 on the third syllable.

    如果您想要技术细节(带有数学运算),请访问:
    http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=10.1.1.12.2621

  43. […] 在 to the nuances of Chinese life. Its author 约翰·帕斯登, of Chinesepod fame, recently wrote this great entry concerning the learning and use of 音s 在 Chinese. Perhaps it helps that he has a degree 在 […]

  44. Interesting. 的small danger I see is that people like to swing to the extremes: “tones are everything”, or “玛雅吧根本不重要。”两者都是可笑的,后者可能更是如此。

    It’的确,普通话的玛雅吧产生变化,说中文的人千差万别,尤其是那些带有强烈地区口音的人。那么,为什么说话者会认为这是 ‘native’生产,而外国人如此突出?

    我在一定程度上同意廖博士,但我认为更大的一部分是这些人使用的语法和结构以及说话的节奏,以至于母语使用者都承认自己是真实的,即使是质朴的或地区性的。这就是真正的非母语人士所缺乏的,而且’即使对于具有相当标准玛雅吧制作的外国人来说,也是致命的礼物,因为’这是最难掌握的方面。

    最后一点,我’d廖博士是否能够在DLI中将其理论付诸实践感兴趣。一世’我实际上遇到了几个在那里学习汉语的人,我不得不说他们的语言能力通常很差。 DLI一直强调听力理解能力,因为主要是学生在军事岗位上要做的是分析语音传输,因此他们可以了解很多。

  45. […] while ago, 约翰·帕斯登 posted on his 中国剪接blog an 文章 about an alternative representation of 音s for chinese 在 connected speech. I’ve been […]

  46. […] my own perceptions of those 音s. I had even (briefly) considered color when I sketched my “感知玛雅吧轮廓” […]

  47. […] something similar to a second 音 plus a third 音, but I think most people get that. Please read this post for a suggested different way of picturing the third 音. Although perhaps not more accurate, it […]

  48. 实际上,这篇文章确实对我有很大帮助。我是在中国的外国留学生,我’ve found that when I pronounce Chinese with the correct 音s some Chinese don’甚至不了解我但是,如果我在一起使话语模糊,不要’t pronounce things thoroughly, like with the 3rd 音 I noticed that people speak 低 mostly, I am understood. It’有时候真的很莫名其妙。至于重音,’理解这个概念有点困难,因为我本人可以说的不止于语音。

  49. 我也注意到中国人不知道’t use the 音s all the time. As light487 suggested, it would be very helpful to have a list of easily misunderstood words that need to be 强调.
    谢谢。

  50. 我会说一半的问题是,大多数正统的普通话培训都在教北京发音,在我看来,这有点像在讲苏格兰口音的英语。只有这样的人说话,听起来很恐怖,而主流的普通话则更加柔和,易于发音。

  51. Thanks 约翰.

    Hope you do not mind that I am going to cite your 音s graph 在 my phd application proposal on perception of Mandarin Chinese 音s 在 Chinese adoptees 在 the Netherlands.

    但我会提到来源-

    很好

    赛琳娜

    • 赛琳娜

      我想知道更多关于您的研究!一世’我很高兴她对Sinosplice对您有用,请告诉我发生了什么。

    • 赛琳娜–
      您r research topic 在 terested me and I was able to find your paper online to read more. I am not a linguist but was drawn to your idea since our daughter whom we adopted at 15 months from China is now 8 years old and has been learning Chinese for about 5 years. We assumed she had next to no 语言 remaining from her early time 在 the SWI but your research 在 dicates otherwise. She is reasonably fluent now and Chinese friends (both 在 the US and China) tell us her pronunciation, 在 cluding 音s, is like a 本机. I wish I could develop such facility with 音s!
      谢谢您,并祝您工作顺利。

  52. 马修·帕特纳德(Matthew Patenaude)说: 2010年2月25日,晚上9:51

    A note on the fourth 音. I think foreign Chinese students, if they are 本机 English (or perhaps German as well?) speakers tend to put a forceful stress on to the fourth 音 syllables. Then, if they think there 应该 be stress on other 音s, then these become pretty much identical to their fourth 音 强调 syllables as well.

    Chinese speakers do not as a rule put that kind of stress on any syllables as a function of 音. Tone is more pitch than anything else. 的only time you will hear the kind of stress that English speakers use –大量的空气散发出来,例如重读英语音节–特别强调情感。

    I agree that the perceptual 音 模型 seems to fit the actual 本机 Chinese speech patterns fairly well.

    • 马修
  53. Dear 约翰!
    我一年多前第一次阅读这篇文章。
    At that time I was a Chinese newbie, and it 真 helped me with my 音s.
    我对此非常感谢。
    最近我做了俄语翻译。
    希望你不会反对。

  54. 一个重要的发现应该是标准教材。我必须自己弄清楚“full” and “weakened”自然语音中的玛雅吧。虽然我基本上已经放弃了尝试实现“conscious competence”这些更复杂和上下文相关的模式。而是我想我’ll do better to let this develop as a sub-conscious learning process 通过 listening to and emulating 充分 sentences and phrases spoken 通过 本机 speakers as often as possible. What sucks is, this 在 ternalization of proper speech patterns would be a much faster process 在 an immersed environment. I think those of us struggling to achieve some sort of fluent, nevermind “native like”,在中国境外的演讲很长一段时间。不过,我凭直觉怀疑,听取高于我们水平的对话是一种有益的练习。也许我们可以在睡眠中听一个哈里·波特(或其他作品)本地人的录音,以帮助加快这一过程。

  55. For some reason this reminded me of that one strange discovery of rdeiang wdros mxeid up. English speakers can read and understand it because we know the words 通过 the context of what the words 应该 be 在 the sentence and 通过 being given the correct letters, only 在 the wrong places. For Chinese, from what it sounds like (from what I read), if you stress the correct 音 在 a sentence 在 a correct way, given the context 的 entire sentence and the topic at hand, to a 本机 speaker the rest 的 tonal meaning conveyed (unless it’完全被屠杀了)将掉入原位。

    Ah, 音s.

  56. […] read this post for a suggested different way of picturing the third 音. Although perhaps not more accurate, it […]

  57. I found this 文章 (and the underlying research) so 在 teresting that I decided to write my bachelor thesis 在 Chinese about teaching the third 音. My conclusion is similar to Dr. Liao’s, i.e. that there is call for a different approach to the third 音, regarding it as an essentially 低 音 在 stead of a falling-rising 音. In case anyone is 在 terested, the 文章 and the thesis can be found here:

    http://www.hackingchinese.com/?p=768

  58. […] the 3rd 音 应该 just be called the “low 音”. 这里’关于约翰·帕斯登的简短文章’s better 音 diagram. 奥勒·林格(Olle Linge) recently came to the same conclusion 在 his thesis for Lund […]

  59. […] provided at the end. Before you check this out, though, you might be 在 terested 在 having a look at an 文章 over at 中国剪接which deals with the third 音. Now the abstract: 的goal of this paper is to examine various […]

  60. […] 做同样的事情。这意味着’s even more important to get those key 音s right. See this 文章 on 中国剪接.com for more about […]

  61. […]以及它与汉语教学的关系,但有些地方要开始讨论“ 中国剪接和Hacking […]

  62. 我知道这是一篇旧文章,但是我不得不对此发表评论。一世’m目前具有现代汉语课,实际上在我们的教科书(为中国学生写的书)中有一条规则:

    3rd 音 + not 3rd 音 = half 3rd 音 + not 3rd 音(上声+非上声=半上+非上声).

    When a 3rd 音 is 214, the half 3rd 音 is 211(调值).

    My Chinese teacher 在 Finland (from Tianjin)never thaught me this, but apparently this is commen knowledge 在 China among students that study how to teach foreigners Chinese. Actually 3rd 音 is rarely pronounced as 3rd 音, because it often changes to 2nd 音 or half 3rd 音.

  63. […] Toward better 音s 在 speech – 通过 中国剪接This 文章 is about how 音s are 真 used 通过 本机 speakers. Native speakers swallow the 音s on many words, depending on whether the word is emphasised. Besides, the 3rd 音 is not what it’通常被认为是:存在差异。 […]

  64. […] often does not actually always sound like a clear down-up when it is spoken 在 normal conversation. This 文章 suggests an excellent alternative way of thinking about it, where the 3rd 音 is viewed as […]

  65. 哲明 - James 说: 2013年3月23日,晚上11:05

    很有启发性。谢谢!

  66. […] chart once you’在现实世界中。 (要对此进行精彩的讨论,请阅读[…]

  67. I recently created a free web resource for learning Chinese 音s based on differentiating minimal pairs. 的site has a “boot camp”专为新手准备的部分,本文是我从那里链接回的资源之一(希望’没关系!)。有人可能会认为这是一个高级话题,但是当您被告知事情听起来应该是一种方式而又不是’t您所听到的,所以我认为可以使早期学习者更好地了解这种情况。

    Anyone wanting to check out their 音 recognition skills can find the website at http://www.maorma.net.

  68. […] 好。因此,如果您选择使用的资源只是简单地说“先跌后升”,则应阅读有关Sinosplice的这篇文章和有关Hacking […]

  69. learn 音s just like learn vocal music

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