汉语语法问题

这周我’m finally 到处走走 写我上学期剩下的两篇期末论文。班别’直到类似27号的时候开始(我认为)。我的任务之一是根据我的教授修改我关于乔姆斯基的论文’的评论。那不应该’t be too hard, except 那 she left a few questions on my paper 那 would seem to warrant entire essays of their own 在 order to answer. (Ah, she won’不记得她在我的纸上写的是吧?)

的other essay is a response to one of the lectures given 在 a seminar course. 的Chinese name of the course was 当代学术前沿讲座 which basically translates to “一堆无聊的演讲。” 的only one I found remotely 在 teresting was 汉语语法的问题和方法 (Issues and Methods 在 Chinese Grammar). So 那 sure narrows down my possible writing topics.

Looking at my notes for 那 lecture, I discovered a mere half page of scribblings. (Yeah, I sure got a lot of daydreaming done during those lectures…) Well, at least I managed to record the“issues”the professor discussed:

1. 的issue of 字 order and functional particles (虚词) 在 Chinese
2. 的issue of formal written 语言
3. 的issue of the non-correlation of parts of speech and sentence components 在 Chinese
4. 的issue of special sentence patterns

嗯迷人。我想我’我会写一些有关单词顺序的文章,并加入其他一些我认为很有趣的内容。这不是’一份研究论文,所以我’我不确定我到底是什么’我应该写。他们在要求学士学位吗?反流吗它’都不清楚。因此,我计划作为外国人分享我的惊人和独特的见解。

教授提出的我确实发现有趣的一件事是单词解析问题。由于中文句子中的单词之间没有空格(甚至“word” as it applies to Chinese is debated), you can get some confusing possibilities. 的professor offered this example:

> 解放大道路面积水。

的sentence seems pretty straightforward, and can be translated as something like, “解放林荫大道表面积水[点亮。‘Liberation Boulevard’].” Actually, though, any two adjacent characters 在 那 sentence comprise a “word.”签出(定义由 文林):

– 解放: jiěfàng* v. liberate; emancipate ◆n. ①liberation ②〈PRC〉 | ∼ qián before 解放 在 1949
–放大:fàngdà* r.v.放大;放大;放大
–大道:dàdàon。 ①宽阔的道路②美德与正义的道路③大道;伟大的方式M:¹tiáo
–道路¹dàolùn。路;道路;路径M:¹tiáo
–路面:“lùmiàn”。路面;路面
–面积表面积
–积水:¹jīshuǐ* n./v.o。积水/积水;洪水

这个问题在计算语言学中尤其重要。计算机程序应如何解释上述句子?文林不’尝试找出哪些定义在语义上适用,它只是为您提供任何以悬停字符开头的单词的定义(因此,如果您悬停在“放”您得到的是放大的定义,而不是相关的解放)。但是,如果您编写的脚本会尝试根据实际句子来分析句子 含义,您会怎么做?对于翻译项目来说,这是一个主要问题 Adsotrans.

显然,这对于中文学生来说也是一个严重的问题。我不止一次’已经被这种事情困扰了。

我认为有趣的另一个问题是标点符号。具体来说, 逗号 (,)与 顿号 (、). 的顿号 is a special kind of comma used for items 在 a list. When I first started studying Chinese, I thought, “that’s dumb. Why do they think they need 那? If one kind of comma is enough for English, why shouldn’这对中国人来说足够了吗?” It wasn’t until I got 在 to some translation work 在 volving long, complex sentences 那 I began to truly appreciate the 顿号. In the beginning, I would sort of read both kinds of commas 在 the same way, 但 then I would hit certain sentences which required me to pay attention to the 顿号 or I would lose the 含义 of the sentence.

有时,我将中文逗号(逗号/)视为一种启动引擎。这是因为在需要用句号结束​​句子以及何时可以永远保持盲目性时,中文偶尔会比英文少很多。这种语言的特征导致中国学生写英语时产生大量的连词,这对英语老师来说可能非常烦人。

这篇文章有点像是集思广益来弄清楚我’我要在我的论文中写。任何评论是 非常欢迎 (越早越好!),因为它们可能会为我在论文中写的内容提供进一步的启发。

分享

约翰·帕斯登

约翰(John)是上海的语言学家和企业家, 全集学习.

评论

  1. 放弃!悔改!准备与您的(学术)制造者见面。

    What emphasis have your lecturers placed on the importance of context? And what approaches to explaining its role 在 the process of expressing 含义 在 在 teraction have they 在 troduced? I know 那 this is key 在 any 语言, 但 as a student of chinese, I remember having to understand the need to rely on 上下文 在 a way 那 up to 那 point I hadn’t realized.

    One more thing, just remember 那 Chomsky is just an engineer. A very good engineer 但 a simple, low, uninspired engineer none the less. But Wittgenstein, he was a genius. When will you Americans learn 那 yours is a nationality not destined for greatness? Everyone knows 那 European Jews are just smarter. I think if your revised paper expresses these sentiments succinctly 但 entirely, you will score highly….

  2. 让我尝试一些随机的想法。

    You are right about Chinese’ use of commas, and about 顿号. 的latter I think is a cool 在 vention 在 Chinese and, IMHO, should be imported 在 to English (see below). Ha, like 那’s gonna happen.

    在今天’s(休闲?)英语,(新的和/或非正式的)标点符号“/” is often used to connect optional 字s which I believe 在 Chinese would just be piled together with nothing 在 between. I would like to see this one imported 在 to Chinese. Ya, this will likely happen.

    总是让我感到困扰的一件事是不必要和/或不精确地使用连词。对我来说,这(中文中也没有使用这两个逗号来插入语言)是中文和/或思维的弱点。一个例子是“于是她走了,那么她为什么走呢,所以我就不理解。”在这里,所有连词都被插入,就好像它们是虚词一样。更糟糕的口语版本是“然后她走了,然后她为什么走呢,然后我就不理解。”我总是取笑那些过度使用的人,然后“再然后呢?”在这种情况下,显然可以说“她走了。她为什么走呢?我就不理解。”但是,人们确实会以这种方式说和写,就像英语中的“you know”、 “you know what”、 or “I tell ya what…”

    That Chinese often allows rearrangement of 字/component order might make an 在 teresting topic. Example, the following would be (perfectly) the same. 我今天早上对他讲了那事。 那事我今天早上对他讲了。 对他讲了那事我今天早上。 我早上对他讲了那事今天。 我那事今天早上对他讲了。 我今天早上讲了那事对他。 我今天早上那事讲了对他。 那事讲了对他今天早上我。

    我认为您可以比较地思考。

  3. However, some particular 字 order DO change the 含义: 我对他讲了今天早上那事。 我今早上对他讲了那天事。

  4. One pause marker 那 continually confuses me is 在 the sentence 请大家前来朝拜、创造我们的天主, one of the antiphons from 每日礼赞. Every time I run across it, I think it must be a misprint. Sure, stringing verbs together usually requires some kind of coordinator, 但 it still seems to me like this sentence is 在 herently ambiguous, with or without the comma.

    的other punctuation issue 那 keeps tripping me up is the use of the dash: most style guides, it seems, require separation only from what comes before, and the choice of where to break off the comment is left to readers. A random example: “电视剧《梅艳芳菲》以香港影星梅艳芳生平为原型创作,早在去年就开始制定,昨日,该剧出品方一个-万科影视方面证明,原来赵宝刚早已于春节前正式加入剧组……”然后句子从那继续。

    What’s 在 teresting to me is how people sometimes 在 vert normal 语法 for emphasis during speech–something like 好漂亮啊你,今天!– something 那 doesn’t seem to be covered 通过 normal Chinese 语法– is it?

  5. 好漂亮啊你,今天!
    这应该是个倒装句,时间副词后置,起突出作用!

    还有另一个有趣的句子:
    上海自来水来自海上。
    上海自来水上来。无论您从左侧还是右侧说这句话,它们都是相同的。

  6. 回答您的计算语言学问题,该句子如何“解放大道路面积水” can be
    understood, I believe a properly trained parser should be able to derive the correct parse tree for 那
    particular sentence, this sentence does seem to have more than 1 parse, 但 I think the correct one would
    have the highest probability. Furthermore, I think 那 if this sentence can be broken down 在 to separate
    正确地短语,它将使解析变得容易得多。一世’我不熟悉中文解析/
    segmentation technology, 但 if I think a properly trained Viterbi algorithm 基础d system or hidden 标记ov
    系统应该能够为您提供正确的细分– 大道 – 路面 – 积水.

    我想象一个适当的词段限制为4个字词的细分系统会从寻找合适的词句开始
    细分来自:


    解放
    解放大
    解放大道

    Each 在 terpretation would get a probability, then for each 在 terpretation, the other 字s would be
    如果将其附加到树状结构中,则将选择概率最高的一个/一个。
    假设训练语料库是好的,并且具有适当的修剪启发法,则很可能会得到适当的修剪
    PC实时达到正确的细分。当然,这种方法可能无法使用
    对于更长的句子’s pretty much combinatory 在 complexity, 但 one can easily represent the
    使它可解决的其他问题。

  7. 我发现这种帖子非常有趣,因为我’我对您在中国研究生院的经历感到非常好奇。

  8. 1) I love the fact 那 nobody knows when classes start, ever.

    2) 的flexibility with respect to parsing and parts of speech and the great many homonyms (homophones?) should make Chinese a playground for deconstructive and psychoanalytic literary criticism.

  9. 更多语言文章,它们是我的最爱,

    I’会寄给我一些我的中文语法,我只是有点不知所措

  10. This is all over my head, 但 I just want to throw 在 one of my favorite ambiguous Chinese sentences: “保持共产党员先进性教育活动”

  11. Maybe it’s the medium 那 has all of the Chinese running horizontally. I’m wondering if reading it is any easier if oriented vertically. Same problems?

  12. 蒂姆:

    不,垂直打印不会’不管排版如何,都使阅读更加轻松。这是句子的措词方式,而不是文本的方向。一直以来,汉语都是犯错,把几个动词当作副词捆扎在一起,因此很难有效地标点。实际上,标点符号解决了句子解析方式中的几个问题–在使用印刷的标点符号之前,立即穿刺是关键研究之一。我的意思是,您将如何标出以下句子:“無名天地之始有名萬物之母” from 老子《道德經》?

    布拉德:

    haha, you mentioned about the usage of“性”. This is supposed to be use as as modal modifier of a noun 但 we know how it 在 terpret 在 such doubious ways, especially 在 long compound phrases.

    zhwj:

    Well, 请大家前来朝拜创造我们的天主 doesn’t really need a pause, it was used to accentuate the Lord,“who creates us”! It should be read as (((请)(大家))((前来)(朝拜))(((创造)(我们的))(天主))) with each bracket/parathesis holds what I think as a vocabulary boundary.

    伦内特:

    Chinese has been a great playground for deconstructive analysis 通过 the viture of Classic Studies, due to the concise and cryptic nature of some classical Chinese texts…

  13. 我看到杜松子酒’的例子分为两类。有些句子可能以口头形式出现,但我可以’想象不到他们被写下来“对他讲了那事我今天早上”。其他是主题化的典型示例,例如“那事我今天早上对他讲了”。第一种给我的印象是附加信息附加在句子的末尾,而第二种则涉及通过将句子的一部分移到最前面来将其变成主题(或主题)。汉语被列为主题突出的语言,并且对第二种现象已经进行了很好的研究。中国语言学是否有同样的区别?这两个例子都被称为倒装句(倒句)还是仅属于第一类?

    的“piling together”金(Gin)提到,单词之间没有标点符号肯定会给人们学习汉语作为外语带来困难。例如,将两个双音节词放在一起时,这种情况尤其常见“组织纪律性”。应该将其理解为两个单独的想法(“组织纪律”),或作为前者对后者的修改(“组织纪律”)?母语为母语的人通常会觉得它很明确,因为这两个词通常一起使用,其含义已经确定,但是对于学习者来说,像这样的例子可能会引起问题。

    顿号 is a great piece of punctuation, 但 I don’t think English has a need for it. I don’t think I’ve ever come across an english sentence where using 顿号 would have made it less ambiguous.

  14. There are actually a couple of simple tricks 那 can 在 crease segmentation accuracy, such as right-to-left rather than left-to-right segmention, as well as doing statistical comparisons of 字 frequency across 字 boundaries and opting to avoid uncommon segmentations. Simple left-to-right longest-word-match algorithms produce accurate segmentation rates of over 90% though, so segmentation really isn’从理论上讲,这是一个巨大的问题。

    With the exception of a poor english definition for 积水 (since corrected), Adso pretty much nailed 解放大道路面积水. Also correctly pegged most of the components as nouns. -

    以我的经验,更大的技术问题是消除语音的正确部分和单个单词的定义的歧义。解放翻译成“to liberate” or “liberation”, and is 基地 “Al Qaeda” or “base”?加上中文文本有选择地省略的趋势“implicit”词性(例如主语或动词),以及常见的介词标记(例如对或在本身就是动词)的事实,这使得很难理解较长的句子。英语要干净得多,因为复杂的语法转换为语法流提供了更好的指示。话语“at” or “in”例如,从不将其用作动词,而定冠词和不定冠词是非常好的路标,’存在一个名词。

    的顿号 acts a lot like a semi-colon 在 English, 在 cidentally.

  15. 特雷维扬

    感谢您的输入。我显然不’我对计算语言学一无所知。

    Regarding the 顿号, though, I don’t see how it could be compared to a semicolon. Taking the first link when you do a Google search for 顿号, I find this sentence:

    亚马逊河,尼罗河,密西西比河和长江是世界四大河流。(亚马逊,尼罗河,密西西比河和扬子江是世界’的四大河流。)

    I see this as a fairly typical (although basic) usage of the 顿号, 但 there’在英语中没有分号的余地。

  16. I’我习惯在列表中使用分号,其元素也可能包含列表,即使我’我不确定这是可接受的用法。但是我觉得为了清晰起见,绝对有必要区别对待:“通用汽车计划在2006年发布新的轿车,跑车,SUV和卡车。重组它’的财务,市场和分销部门;并增加在北美的广告。

  17. 伦内特

    好吧’s true 那 在 certain special cases the semicolon can replace the comma (check out 这一页 and look at #2). But 那 still doesn’t make the 顿号 more similar to the semicolon 在 English than the comma 在 the vast majority of cases.

    I think maybe 特雷维扬 meant 那 在 Chinese the 逗号 takes on the basic function of the semicolon 在 English (as well as its other duties). That I would agree with. (This helps explain all the run-on sentences Chinese students write.)

  18. 伦内特: I just re-read Strunk and White a few weeks ago, 和它 approved of the semi-colon as list separator for lists with long items.

    Do Chinese students write run-on sentences? 的biggest punctuation problem I observe–and it’这是一个非常非常标准的问题–is bad spacing around punctuation. 关于 100% of Chinese writing English omit the space after punctuation, and about 50% take the space and put it before the punctuation mark .Like 那.

  19. I’m all 在 favor of importing the dun hao 在 to English, 但 then I’m all 在 favor of emoticons 在 formal writing - And also adopting Chinese style run on sentences, which are a much closer fit to the way people actually think.

  20. 米迦 what does Strunk and White say about semicolons 在 sentences like:“I’ve been a living 在 China for 5.5 years; 但 I’ve been a total doofus for much much longer.” ?

  21. 伦内特

    我为你查了一下。它说:

    “我正在抢你的房间。”

  22. 米迦

    是的,他们不屑一顾。您’不过,请确保正确使用标点符号(尤其是在线)。

  23. Look out! Linguist on a rampage! Worst part is, you could have a riot 在 my room while I was at work 和它 probably wouldn’t look any worse than I left it.

    For real though: one of the things I like about Chinese is 那 thoughts can be put on paper much more directly. People don’不要以完整的句子来思考(将英语风格的完整句子与很多‘fuller’ or ‘more robust’ sentences typical 在 Chinese writing), so thoughts must be distorted when they are written down 在 English, moreso it would seem than 在 Chinese. I guess you could argue 那 it’是一个完善而不是扭曲的过程,但是我不’认为我不会买。

  24. 伦内特

    I doubt you would feel 那 way if you had been educated on Chinese the same way the Chinese have. I think communication 在 a foreign 语言 naturally brings a sort of freshness and freedom… But as much as it delivers us from restrictions, it also betrays us when we 犯错误.

  25. “Make mistakes”?为自己说话。我不’t “make mistakes”, I “表达我的个性”. Granted 那 learning Chinese as a second 语言 and not learning it 在 the Chinese educational system have made it it fresher and freer for me, 但 I think 那 the way Chinese is presently written, with clauses related 通过 topic and linked 通过 commas, is a better reflection of the way people think than is the structure of written English.

  26. 如果中国人的结构更好地符合人们的思维方式,’所有语言的结构都相似吗?我认为世界上发现的结构变化’s 语言 is proof 那 these choices (eg subject-predicate vs theme-rheme, left-branching vs right-branching) are all arbitrary.

  27. “Micah, what does Strunk and White say about semicolons 在 sentences like:“I’ve been a living 在 China for 5.5 years; 但 I’ve been a total doofus for much much longer.” ?”

    抱歉,嵌入的语音标记。你应该写的是这个“我在中国生活了5.5年;我已经呆了很久了。” No need for the ‘but’ as it seems superflous or even redundant, 在 terpret 那 as you will 😉 (written after 2 bottles of Great Wall’s finest).

    情感算作语法吗?

  28. In both English and Chinese, a semicolon is higher 在 the punctuation foodchain than a comma, thus called a supercomma; I have seen English writers confuse its use with 那 of a colon, we Chinese on the other hand do not tend to make 那 mistake.

    正如约翰指出的那样,在中文中,邓浩(Dun-hao)比逗号低,我称之为迷你逗号,它仅用于列表。

    您如何看待我惯用的句子?我怀念从未使用任何标点符号的日子!

  29. Ha! I read Gin’s comment without noticing the ungrammatical run-ons, until he pointed them out. It’s no secret 那 the 在 ternet is not the best place to learn the rules of English spelling, punctuation, or capitalization.

  30. 对我来说,计算机语言的语法和标点符号要容易得多。为什么可以’英语中的括号是嵌套的(有时是’s useful when giving additional 在 formation (especially details 那 you don’t want the reader to focus on)), despite the fact 那 it allows for clearer division of thoughts? Don’甚至不让我开始使用美国在引号内放置句点。

    Travelyan, have you considered using a genetic algorithm 基础d approach to handle the problem of 隐含的 speech?

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