"Dialects" 在 China

[这里’这是我来中国后不久于2000年写的。我还是觉得’s pretty accurate.]

中国的语言状况确实令人赞叹。大多数了解中国的人都知道普通话是官方语言,尽管很多人也说广东话(在南方,在香港和广州等地区)。那些人可能还知道,在中国还有更多的语言,由不同的少数民族使用。所有这些都是正确的,但是这种评估几乎没有刮擦表面。

实际上,华东地区(发达的中国,而不是农村)几乎每个人都至少会说双语。中国是语言的大杂烩,每个城镇都说着自己的中文品牌。中国人称这些“dailects”, but it’s not actually that simple. When Americans think of 方言, we might think of black English, or the English of the American South, or of England. Though there might be some communication difficulty (with certain 方言 在 particular), communication between speakers of different 方言 can generally proceed.

中文“dialects” are not so. This is largely because tones are a vital part of the 中文language, and tones (as well as other sounds) vary from “dialect” to “dialect”. Neighboring towns tend to speak varieties of 中文which can be mutually understood, but if you go just a little further away to another town, communication often breaks down completely. Since mutual 在 telligibility is generally accepted as the basic dividing line between 方言 and 语言, these “dialects”实际上是分开的 语言s. Thus, this means that every town 在 China speaks a separate 语言! Since most people 在 China speak their hometown 语言 as well as Mandarin, that means almost everyone is 双语! Furthermore, many people who have moved from city to city can speak or at least understand more than one local 语言 (and can understand the closely related ones as well).

因此,我们这里所涉及的是大量的语言拼凑而成的补丁,其中包含无数个补丁,而且不清楚哪个补丁结束且下一个补丁开始的地方。另外,普通话被放置在该拼凑而成的顶部,从而使语言混乱变得更加凝聚。这并不是说普通话在全国范围内是完全标准的(甚至经常说)。它’s not (though much more so 在 northern China). This is where the true 方言 come 在 — the local 语言s of different regions affect the way Mandarin is pronounced and used, but mutual 在 telligibility is preserved. Thus, the Mandarin of Beijing, of Shanghai, and of Taiwan are not the same. They each have their own 方言 of Mandarin. In some parts of China like Guangzhou and Hong Kong, Cantonese is spoken more often than Mandarin.

因此,中国是无数语言的国家,由一个政府统一。仅调用单独的语言“dialects”轻描淡写的语言差异(和个性)实际上有助于统一国家。它’当您的同胞只说一个“dialect”相同的语言而不是单独的语言。比政府更统一’但是,通过文字进行的心理操纵是中文书面语言。尽管语言差异很大—单词发音,语气(有时甚至是音调数量),语法用法等方面的差异。—除少数少数民族语言外,他们都使用相同的书面汉字。在中国,任何有识字的人(少数少数民族除外)都可以用母语说出一本又一本的中文报纸,听众会听得懂,但中国其他地区的大多数人却听不懂。用中国官方语言普通话大声朗读,整个中国的大多数人都会理解。

由于中国是一个多语言国家,因此使用汉字和普通话作为中国的官方语言是中国的重要先决条件’现代化。汉字当然已经存在了数千年,但是直到20世纪初,才开始为该国采用一种官方语言!也许这就是中国现代化起步缓慢的原因之一。在选择一种语言作为整个国家的标准时,中国实际上是在跟随日本’s example. Japan underwent the same process as a precursor to its modernization. Perhaps because of its vastness, or maybe also because of its particular linguistic situation, China to this day does not have the linguistic cohesion that Japan does. Japan cannot be said to be a country of many 语言s (although 在 addition to Japanese it does have the the 语言 of the Ainu, the aboriginal Japanese). To be sure, each part of Japan speaks a distinct variety of Japanese, but these are merely 方言ual differences, and do not depart from mutual 在 telligibility for the most part.

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约翰·帕斯登

约翰是上海的语言学家和企业家, 全集学习.

评论

  1. 您的这个网站如果很有用!

    谢谢!

    PS需要我的研究

  2. Well done! 约翰. This is a very useful 文章 tin terms of explaining 中文local 语言s to foreigner 语言 speakers who want to know more about 中文and China!

  3. Mark 在 Dunan 说: 2007年11月22日,上午3:32

    我不会’t say that Japan isn’t a nation of many 语言s. In Okinawa, each island has its own 语言 which is only partially 在 telligible with the neighboring island.

    Of course, the national government is trying to destroy all of these beautiful 语言s and make everyone talk like people from Tokyo. At least they don’t make people wear “dialect tags”就像二战前一样

  4. […] Mandarin’s “tāng.”这种事情在中国无时无刻不在发生 ’丰富的语言挂毯,提出的问题类似于[…]

  5. 当我’我不是语言学家,我通过语言学家了解到“dialect” and “language”不是特别基于发音或其他‘scientific’ characteristics. Instead, they are constructed through political and social identities. Through this lens, the 中文‘language’ and its ‘dialects’ are more defined 在 terms of how the 中文people and its government view themselves.

  6. 至于你所说的书面语言,我认为是’可能是真的,任何(受过良好教育)的中国听众都可以理解用母语母语朗读的报纸,但这实际上是一个复杂的社会语言问题。书面汉语虽然在全国范围内相对统一,但与口语不同(尽管’现在与口语普通话非常接近)。即使它’不再是文言文,中文写作涉及多种形式主义。虽然不(发音“bat”粤语,离普通话不太远“bu”)被广东人理解,他们实际上在大多数否定词中都使用了这个词“mm”并(在msn等非正式环境中)写为唔。国家报纸只会写不。另一方面,在某些语言中,有很多(有时是很常见的)单词‘dialects’没有标准的书面形式。普通话和广东话(或任何两种中文)之间的惯用口译涉及的内容远不止是稍微改变发音,这是每个人都能理解报纸的方式。

    What I mean to add to the discussion is that educated 中文speakers, even if they can’实际上不会说(即发音)普通话“bilingual”在某种意义上。英语也是如此(比较新加坡人的口语和书面形式’的英语),但我认为程度较小。

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